Virtual Object Position Manipulation Using ARToolKit

  • Hoger Mahmud Hussen Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


In this paper the outcome of a project is presented that aims to modify and improve one of the most widely used Augmented Reality tools. Augmented reality (AR), is a fast growing area of virtual reality research.

Augmented Reality (AR) is a newly emerging technology by which user’s view of the real world is augmented with additional information from a computer model. ARToolKit is one of the most widely used toolkits for Augmented Reality applications. The toolkit tracks optical markers and overlays virtual objects on the markers. In the current version of the toolkit the overlaid object is stationary or loops regardless of the optical target position, this means that the overlaid object cannot be animated or changed based on the movement of the optical target.

The aim is to improve the toolkit, therefore a design solution to modify it were designed and implement so that users can manipulate the position of the overlaid virtual object, through movements of the optical target. The design solution focuses on developing a mathematically based links between the position of the optical target and the overlaid virtual object.

To test the solution test cases were developed and the results show that the design solution is effective and the principal idea can be used to develop many applications in different sectors such as education and health.


[1] Kangdon Lee, "Augmented Reality in Education and Training," TechTrends, vol. Volume 56, , no. Number 2, April 2012.
[2] Manuel Contero, David C. Pérez-López and Mario Ortega Mariano Alcañiz, "Augmented Reality Technology for Education," NewtechOpen, 2010.
[3] [Online].
[4] [Online].
[5] Mark Billinghurst, Ivan Poupyrev Hirokazu Katoa. (2013, September) [Online].
[6] Ribo Miguel. (2001, September) [Online].
[7] David Sickinger. (2004, February) [Online].
[8] A. Davidson, S. Hench and T. M.Olano J. Butterworth, "3DM: A Three Dimensional Modeler Using a Head-Mounted Display," in Proceedings of Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1992, pp. 135-138.
[9] J.Liang and M. Green, "JDCAD: A Highly Interactive 3D Modeling System," in Computer & Graphics, 1994, pp. 499-506.
[10] M. R. Mine, "ISSAC: A Meta-CAD System for Virtual Environments," in Computer-Aided Design, 1997, pp. 547-553.
[11] G. Wesche and H. Seidel, "“FreeDrawer – A Free Form Sketching System on the Responsive Workbench," in ACM Symposium onVirtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST 2001), 2001, pp. 167-174.
[12] R. Stiles and M. Pontecorvo, "Lingua Graphica: A Visual Language for Virtual Environments," in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages, 1992, pp. 225-227.
[13] A. Steed and M. Slater, "Dataflow Representation for Defining Behaviours within Virtual Environments," in Proceedings of Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1996, pp. 163-167.
[14] G. J. Kim and C. M. Park G. A. Lee, "Modeling Virtual Object Behavior within Virtual Environment," in Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST 2002), 2002, pp. 41-48.
[15] D. S. Tan, M. Billinghurst, H. Kato,H. Regenbrecht and N. Tetsutani I. Poupyrev, "Developing a Generic Augmented Reality Interface," IEEE Computer, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 44-50, March 2002.
[16] M. Billinghurst, I. Poupyrev, K. Imamoto and K. Tachibana H. Kato, "Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top AR Environment," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2000), Munich, German, 2000, pp. 111-119.
[17] Hirokazu Kato,Ivan Poupyrev Mark Billinghursta. (2002) [Online].
[18] [Online].
[19] (2013, October) OpenGL. [Online].
How to Cite
HUSSEN, Hoger Mahmud. Virtual Object Position Manipulation Using ARToolKit. Journal of University of Human Development, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 306-310, apr. 2015. ISSN 2411-7765. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 june 2021. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)