1Department of Information Technology, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq; 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Philadelphia, Amman, Jordan
Several years ago, China and the United States of America began experimenting with the coronavirus, which lives in the bat. It is not known until now how the virus spread and how it extended to all countries of the world. However, it is certain that this virus first appeared and spread was at the end of 2019 and in the Chinese city of Wuhan, especially in markets close to laboratories that are working on this virus. At the beginning of the year 2020, this virus began to spread very widely all over the world and began killing thousands of people every day. The world economy was destroyed until the World Health Organization considered it a pandemic. As for the research aspect, the researchers started the research work on this pandemic from many aspects, including medical, statistical, managerial, healthcare, and others. A statistical analysis depends many key factors that have been studied. This study was conducted on April 11, 2020, where a large number of research papers were downloaded using the keywords coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, which were applied in the Sciencedirect library that was examined on 100 research papers only. The obtained results indicated that most of the research papers that worked on the subject of COVID-19 confirmed that this virus infects the human respiratory system, which in turn leads to shortness of breath and death. Here, it must be noted that the human immune system has a major role in the process of overcoming this virus and gradual recovery. The obtained analysis indicated that the main fields of coronavirus are: Medicine 42%, statistics 21%, healthcare 19%, and management 18%. Through this study, it became clear that China is the first country in terms of the number of researchers and also in terms of the number of research papers related to the COVID-19.
Index Terms: Coronavirus, Coronavirus Disease-19, Diagnosis, Human Immune System, Coronavirus Disease-19 Published Papers
Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that may cause disease in animals and humans. It is known that a number of coronaviruses cause human respiratory infections that range from common colds to more severe diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The newly discovered coronavirus causes the Covid-19 virus. Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus. There was no knowledge of this virus and this emerging disease before the outbreak of outbreak in the Chinese city of Johan in December 2019. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 disease are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Some patients may experience pain and aches, nasal congestion, cold, sore throat, or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected without showing any symptoms and without feeling ill. Moreover, the severity of the disease intensifies in approximately one person out of every six people who develop COVID-19 infection, who suffer from difficulty breathing. The risk of the elderly and people with basic medical problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, or diabetes is severe. About 2% of people who have contracted the disease have died. People with fever, cough, and difficulty breathing should seek medical care. The term “incubation period” refers to the period from infection with the virus to the onset of symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for COVID-19 disease range from 1 to 14 days, usually lasting 5 days. These estimates will be updated as more data becomes available.
A section of Kingston University’s Microbiologists has concluded that a coronavirus attacks two specific groups of cells in the lungs. One of these cells is called a goblet cell, and the other is called a ciliated cell. They explain that the goblet cells produce the mucus that forms a moisturizing layer on the respiratory canal, which is important to help maintain the moisture of the lungs, and thus maintain health. The ciliary cells are cells with hairs that point upward, and their function is to shovel any harmful substance suspended in mucus, such as bacteria, viruses, and dust particles, toward the throat to get rid of them. Coronavirus, on the other hand, infects these two groups of cells, which is observed with SARS, Professor Felder says. Felder added that the coronavirus infects these cells and begins to kill them, and its tissues begin to fall and collect in the lungs, and the lungs begin to become obstructed, which means that the patient has pneumonia. Then, the body’s immune system is trying to respond because it realizes that the body is under attack, and this may lead to an overload of immunity, and then the immune system makes a major attack that damages healthy tissues in the lung, and this also may make breathing more difficult. The virus not only attacks the lungs but also the kidneys, which may lead to kidney failure and later death. The World Health Organization considered COVID-19 as a pandemic disease which means an epidemic that has spread over a large area that is prevalent through an entire county, continent, or the whole world.
This work aims to introduce a brief study of COVID-19, in addition to analysis the published papers in this field.
This section including: COVID-19 mechanism, published papers on COVID-19, results, and analysis.
COVID-19 virus get in the human body via many ways: Eyes, nose, and mouth (Fig. 1):
Fig. 1. Coronavirus disease-19 virus entering the human body.
• Via eyes: In this case, the virus has two main pathways that exit through tears or enter the lacrimal sac, then reach the nasal cavity and mouth, then go to the stomach and end with gastric juices or enter the respiratory system.
• Via nose: In this case, the virus is either expelled through the mucus or enters the respiratory system.
• Via mouth: In this case, the virus enters the stomach and kills them, or enters the respiratory system.
When the virus enters the respiratory system, it settles into the lung, where it begins to attack cells there. At that time, the immune system begins to attack the virus, and this leads to many accumulations in the lung that lead to a deficiency in the work of the lung. This means shortness of breath and sometimes leads to death.
COVID-19 key word is used is applied on Sciencedirect library at April 11, 2020 in which appeared 1741 published papers, all these papers are published in 2020. To determine this this work, 100 papers were focused onto be studied as shown in Fig. 2. To analyze these hundreds published papers, the first look at them was as follows: Eighty-nine (89%) papers have been downloaded and the study has been done on it, eight (8%) papers we could not download, two duplicated (2%) papers, and finally one repeated (1%) paper. In general, 11% of the papers are canceled and 89% of the papers are considered to be studied.
Fig. 2. Published papers on coronavirus disease-19.
Table 1 includes data on the published research papers that have been studied. This table was divided into several fields to clarify the quality of research and on any topic in which it was focused, these fields are paper ID, topic of the paper, applied method, and applied database, in addition to the country, in which the study was conducted and the country to which the researcher belongs.
TABLE 1 Search applied in Sciencedirect library at April 7, 2020.
Whatever was the area of interest, they are related to the medical part of COVID-19. The field of research area regarding to the score is divided into four main categories: Medicine 37 (42%), statistics 19 (21%), healthcare 17 (19%), and management 16 (18%). Medicine category including: Treatment 22 (60%), diagnosis 6 (16%), clinical 5 (14%), emergency 1 (2.5%), hepatic 1 (2.5%), surgical 1 (2.5%), and arrhythmia 1 (2.5%). Statistical category including many fields in statistical analysis. Health-care category including: Health approach 5 (30%), health workers 3 (17%), personal health 3 (17%), community pharmacies 2 (12%), health-care provider 2 (12%), global health 1 (6%), and national care 1 (6%). Management category including: Recommendation 6 (38%), patient management 3 (19%), control 2 (13%), pharmaceutical care management 1 (6%), internet hospital 1 (6%), emergency 1 (6%), clinical management 1 (6%), and reorganization 1 (6%).
The most important categories are related to the country in which the study was conducted and the country to which the researcher belongs. The country to which the researcher belongs is focusing on 25 countries and China settles on the top, as shown in Fig. 3. The score of the researchers by country related to COVID-19 is sorted top to bottom: China 37%, USA 12%, France 7%, Taiwan 7%, Canada 5%, UK 5%, Italy 5%, India 4%, and Spain 2%, and the rest of countries are 1%.
Fig. 3. Country to which the researcher belongs.
The country in which the study was conducted is focusing on 20 countries and also China settles on the top, as shown in Fig. 4. The score of the published research papers by country related to COVID-19 is sorted top to bottom: China 37%, Global 27%, USA 12%, France 7%, Taiwan 7%, Canada 5%, UK 5%, Italy 5%, India 4%, and Spain 2%, and the rest of countries are 1%.
Fig. 4. Country in which the research was conducted.
As a result of the previous research and studies obtained, it was found that the coronavirus has effected various places in the human body, and this virus has many different effects, including its effect on the lung and respiratory system. In general, its effect on heart murmurs, as well as on microvascular clots, in addition to other effects such high temperatures, intestinal disturbances, vomiting, and other disorders.
We know that coronavirus (COVID-19) started in China, so most of the research must begin and continue in this country to find a treatment for this disease. In spite of all the ongoing research papers on this subject, so far there is no effective treatment for this disease, on the other hand, all efforts are combined to achieve this goal and overcome this pandemic.
December 2019 was the start of an outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Then, at the beginning of the year 2020, this virus began to spread across the countries of the world gradually, as it appeared in all countries within only 2 months. During the spread of the coronavirus, researchers began working on this virus in different aspects and disciplines. This paper is based on a number of key factors that have been studied such as: Topic, applied method, applied database, researcher by country, and search by country. This search was applied on Sciencedirect library and conducted on April 11, 2020. In this work, a focus was placed on a hundred research papers, including 899 downloaded and 11 research papers that we could not download, so this work is focused on research papers that were obtained only. As a conclusion of this work, a huge number of research papers are published in these 2 months and this research papers has been divided into four main categories: Medicine 42%, statistics 21%, healthcare 19%, and management 18%. Each of these categories also was divided into many sub-categories that related to narrow fields. Furthermore, it is clear that China settles on the top of the country in which the study was conducted and also on the top of the country to which the researcher belongs.
On this occasion, we would like to extend our sincere thanks and appreciation to the Sciencedirect database that contributed to supporting the research of COVID-19 by providing research papers without fees.
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