A Blockchain-based Service Provider Validation and Verification Framework for Healthcare Virtual Organization
Virtual organization and blockchain are two newly emerging technologies that researchers are exploring their potentials to solve many information and communication technology unaddressed problems and challenges. Health care is one of the sectors that are very dynamic and it is in need of constant improvement in the quest to better the quality of cares and reduce cost. One of the hotline of research in the sector is the use of information and communication technology to provide health care and this is where the concept of virtual healthcare is relevant. In virtual healthcare patients and care providers are collaborating in virtual settings where two of the most difficult challenges are verifying and validating the identity of the communicating parties and the information exchanged. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework using blochchain technology to address the health care provider and record verification and validation issue. The framework is specific to healthcare systems developed based on Virtual Breeding Environment and Virtual Organization. We outline and explain each step in the framework and demonstrate its applicability in a simple healthcare scenario. This paper contributes towards the continuing effort to address user identity and information verification and validation issues in virtual settings in general and in healthcare in specific.
 H. Mahmud and J. Lu, “A GENERIC VOBE FRAMEWORK TO MANAGE HOME HEALTHCARE COLLABORATION,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 80, no. 2, p. 362, 2015.
 C. Stagnaro, “White Paper: Innovative Blockchain Uses in Health Care.”
 G. Zyskind, O. Nathan, and others, “Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data,” in Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE, 2015, pp. 180–184.
 C. P. Transaction, “Blockchain: Opportunities for Health Care,” 2016.
 S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system,” 2008.
 Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. Dai, X. Chen, and H. Wang, “An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends,” in Big Data (BigData Congress), 2017 IEEE International Congress on, 2017, pp. 557–564.
 M. Swan, Blockchain: Blueprint for a new economy. “ O’Reilly Media, Inc.,” 2015.
 “How Blockchain Can Solve Real Problems in Healthcare.” [Online]. Available: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-blockchain-can-solve-real-problems-healthcare-tamara-stclaire. [Accessed: 05–06-2018].
 L. A. Linn and M. B. Koo, “Blockchain for health data and its potential use in health it and health care related research,” in ONC/NIST Use of Blockchain for Healthcare and Research Workshop. Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States: ONC/NIST, 2016.
 “The Blockchain for Healthcare: Gem Launches Gem Health Network With Philips Blockchain Lab.” [Online]. Available: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/the-blockchain-for-heathcare-gem-launches-gem-health-network-with-philips-blockchain-lab-1461674938/. [Accessed: 02–05-2018].
 M. Sharples and J. Domingue, “The blockchain and kudos: A distributed system for educational record, reputation and reward,” in European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, 2016, pp. 490–496.
 D. Carboni, “Feedback based Reputation on top of the Bitcoin Blockchain,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.01504, 2015.
 “Gemhealth.” [Online]. Available: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/the-blockchain-for-heathcare-gem-launches-gem-health-network-with-philips-blockchain-lab-1461674938/. [Accessed: 02–04-2018].
 “Applying blockchain technology to medicine traceabilit.” [Online]. Available: https://www.securingindustry.com/pharmaceuticals/applying-blockchain-technology-to-medicine-traceability/s40/a2766/#.W1hTsNIzbIU.
 G. Peters, E. Panayi, and A. Chapelle, “Trends in crypto-currencies and blockchain technologies: a monetary theory and regulation perspective (2015).”
 A. Kosba, A. Miller, E. Shi, Z. Wen, and C. Papamanthou, “Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts,” in 2016 IEEE symposium on security and privacy (SP), 2016, pp. 839–858.
 B. W. Akins, J. L. Chapman, and J. M. Gordon, “A whole new world: Income tax considerations of the Bitcoin economy,” Pitt. Tax Rev., vol. 12, p. 25, 2014.
 L. Ge, C. Brewster, J. Spek, A. Smeenk, J. Top, F. van Diepen, B. Klaase, C. Graumans, and M. de R. de Wildt, Blockchain for agriculture and food, no. 2017–112. Wageningen Economic Research, 2017.
 M. Mettler, “Blockchain technology in healthcare: The revolution starts here,” in e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on, 2016, pp. 1–3.
 R. P. Biuk-Aghai and S. Simoff, “Patterns of virtual collaboration in online collaboration systems,” in Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, St. Thomas, USVI, November, 2004, pp. 22–24.
 L. Wainfan and P. K. Davis, Challenges in virtual collaboration: Videoconferencing, audioconferencing, and computer-mediated communications. Rand Corporation, 2004.
 C. Zirpins and W. Emmerich, “Virtual Organisation by Service Virtualisation: Conceptual Model and e-Science Application,” Research Notes RN/07/07, University College London, Dept. of Computer Science, 2007.
 E. Ermilova and H. Afsarmanesh, “Modeling and management of profiles and competencies in VBEs,” Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 561–586, 2007.
 P. R. Messinger, E. Stroulia, and K. Lyons, “A typology of virtual worlds: Historical overview and future directions,” Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, vol. 1, no. 1, 2008.
 J. M. Balkin and B. S. Noveck, State of Play: Law, Games, and Virtual Worlds: Law, Games, and Virtual Worlds (Ex Machina: Law, Technology, and Society). NYU Press, 2006.
 S. Reiff-Marganiec and N. J. Rajper, “Modelling virtual organisations: Structure and reconfigurations,” in Adaptation and Value Creating Collaborative Networks, Springer, 2011, pp. 297–305.
 H. Afsarmanesh and L. M. Camarinha-Matos, “A framework for management of virtual organization breeding environments,” in Collaborative networks and their breeding environments, Springer, 2005, pp. 35–48.
 A. Salomaa, Public-key cryptography. Springer Science \& Business Media, 2013.
 A. Collomb and K. Sok, “Blockchain/Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT): What Impact on the Financial Sector?,” Communications \& Strategies, no. 103, p. 93, 2016.
 B. M. Till, A. W. Peters, S. Afshar, and J. G. Meara, “From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?,” BMJ global health, vol. 2, no. 4, p. e000570, 2017.
 I. C. Ellul, “Blockchain \& healthcare: will there be offspring?,” 2017.
 D. Randall, P. Goel, and R. Abujamra, “Blockchain applications and use cases in health information technology,” Journal of Health \& Medical Informatics, vol. 8, no. 3, 2017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.