Photosynthetic Pigments and Stomata Characteristics of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis savi) under the Effect of X-Ray Radiation

Authors

  • Ikbal Muhammed Albarzinji Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq
  • Arol Muhsen Anwar Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq
  • Hawbash Hamadamin Karim Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region - F.R. Iraq
  • Mohammed Othman Ahmed Department of Horticulture, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Raparin, Kurdistan Region- F.R. Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21928/uhdjst.v6n2y2022.pp58-64

Keywords:

Vigna sinensis savi, X-ray Radiation, Pigments, Stomata Traits

Abstract

This study was conducted in the field and laboratories of the faculty of science and health-Koya university by exposing the seeds of cowpea plant (Vigna sinensis Savi) var. California black-eye to X-ray radiation in two different locations (In target or 30 cm out of target) inside the radiation chamber, for four different exposure times (0, 5, 10, or 20 min), to study the effect on some characteristics of seedling components. Results show that the exposure location to X-ray had non-significant effects on cowpea leaves content of photosynthetic pigments, whereas each of time of exposure with interaction between location and time of exposure had significant effects on chlorophyll a, total chlorophylls, and total carotenoids pigments. Regarding the X-ray effects on stomata characteristics, the results detect that there were non-significant differences between the location of exposure on stomata number on abaxial leaves surfaces and stomata length on adaxial leaves surfaces, whereas a significant effects on number of stomata on the adaxial leaves surfaces, abaxial stomata length, abaxial, and adaxial stomata width were detect. Exposing cowpea seeds to X-ray radiation in the target of the radiation source increased significantly stem and leave dry matter percent compared with the one out of the target location, whereas increasing the time of exposure decreased the percent of dry matter of stem and leaves. It is concluded that exposing cowpea seeds to X-ray leads to changes in photosynthetic pigments, stomata characteristics, and plant dry matter content.

References

G. Vasilevski. “Perspectives of the application of physiological methods in sustainable agriculture”. Bulgarian Journal for Plant Physiol, Special Issue, vol. 3-4, pp. 179-186, 2003.

M. K. Al-Jebori and I. M. Al-Barzinji. “Exposing potato seed tuber to high voltage field I. Effects on growth and yield”. Journal of Iraqi Agricultural Sciences, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 1-11, 2008.

I. M. Al-Barzinji and M. K. Al-Jubouri. “Effects of exposing potato tuber seeds to UV radiation on growth, yield and yield quality”. Research and Reviews: Journal of Botany, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 19-26, 2016.

K. H. Ng. “Non-Ionizing Radiations-Sources, Biological Effects, Emissions and Exposures”. Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at UNITEN (ICNIR2003). Electromagnetic Fields and Our Health, 2003.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities”. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C, United States, 2012. Available from : https://www.epa.gov/sites/ default/files/2015-05/documents/402-k-10-008.pdf [Last accessed on 2022 Sep 23].

K. P. Panchal, N. R. Pandya, S. Albert and D. J. Gandhi. “A x-ray image analysis for assessment of forage seed quality”. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 103-109, 2014.

A. A. Rezk, J. M. Al-Khayri, A. M. Al-Bahrany, H. S. El-Beltagi and H. I. Mohamed. “X-ray irradiation changes germination and biochemical analysis of two genotypes of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.)”. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 393-402, 2019.

J. Singh. “Studies in bio-physics: Effect of electromagnetic field and x-rays on certain road side legume plants at Saharanpur”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1-9, 2013.

S. Dhamgaye, V. Dhamgaye and R. Gadre. “Growth retardation at different stages of bean seedlings developed from seeds exposed to synchrotron x-ray beam”. Advances in Biological Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 29-35, 2018.

S. Dhamgaye, N. Gupta, A. Shrotriya, V. Dhamgaye and R. Gadre. “Biological effects of seed irradiation by synchrotron x-ray beam in young bean seedlings”. Advances in Biological Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 88-97, 2019.

S. M. Mortazavi, L. A. Mehdi-Pour, S. Tanavardi, S. Mohammadi, S. Kazempour, S. Fatehi, B. Behnejad and H. Mozdarani. “The biopositive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of Phaseolus vulgaris plant: A possibility of new physical fertilizers”. Asian Journal of Expermental Sciences, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 27-33, 2006.

C. Arena, V. De Micco and A. De Maio. “Growth alteration and leaf biochemical responses in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to different doses of ionising radiation”. Plant Biology, vol. 16, no. Suppl 1, pp. 194-202, 2014.

R. M. Roy. “Transpiration and stomatal opening of x-irradiated broad bean seedlings”. Radiation Botany, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 179-184, 1974.

C. Z. Jiang, S. R. Rodermel and R. M. Shibles. “Photosynthesis, rubisco activity and amount, and their regulation by transcription in senescing soybeen leaves”. Plant Physiology, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 105-112, 1993.

K. Lichtenthaler and A. R. Wellburn. “Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents”. Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 591-592, 1983.

R. Priyanka and R. M. Mishra. “Effect of urban air pollution on epidermal traits of road side tree species, Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr”. ISRO Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 2319-2402, 2013.

F. H. Al-Sahaf. “Applied Plant Nutrition. University of Baghdad. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research”. Dar al- Hikma Press, Iraq, p. 260, 1989.

A. H. Reza. “Design of Experiments for Agriculture and the Natural Sciences”. 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York, pp. 452, 2006.

N. A. Al-Enezi, and J.M. Al-Khayri. “Alterations of DNA, ions and photosynthetic pigments content in date palm seedlings induced by X-irradiation”. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 329-336, 2012a.

A. A. Aly, R. W. Maraei, and S. Ayadi. “Some biochemical changes in two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars in response to gamma irradiation and salt stress”. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 50-59, 2018.

L. R. Dartnell, M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, C. W. Mullineaux, A. V. Ruban, G. Wright, A. D. Griffiths, J. P. Muller and J. M. Ward. “Degradation of cyanobacterial biosignatures by ionizing radiation”. Astrobiology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 997-1016, 2011.

H. H. Latif and H. I. Mohamed. “Exogenous applications of moringa leaf extract effect on retrotransposon, ultrastructural and biochemical contents of common bean plants under environmental stresses”. South African Journal of Botany, vol. 106, pp. 221-231, 2016.

L. Taiz and E. Zeiger. “Plant Physiology”. 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates Publications, Sunderland, Massachusetts, p. 690, 2002.

N. A. Al-Enezi and J. M. Al-Khayri. “Effect of X-irradiation on proline accumulation, growth and water content of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedlings”. Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 146-153, 2012b.

D. O. Kehinde, K. O. Ogunwenmo, B. Ajeniya, A. A. Ogunowo and A. O. Onigbinde. “Effects of X-ray irradiation on growth physiology of Arachis hypogaea (Var. Kampala)”. Chemistry International, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 296-300, 2017.

Published

2022-09-24

Issue

Section

Articles