Liver Fluke Species Identification Isolated From Humans and Animals Using PCR-RFLP and DNA Sequencing
Keywords:Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Polymerase chain reaction, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Liver fluke
Fasciola species are a member of flatworms belonging to the trematodes (flukes), commonly known as liver fluke, they are extremely pathogenic parasites that affect the liver of humans and animals, nowadays, most laboratories and research facilities use molecular-based techniques for identifying and describing Fasciola species. The molecular diagnostic markers such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and PCR-RFLP methods are accurate and more specific than the immunological and microscopical methods. The identification of the species of liver flukes will give a new clue for the treatment and control of fascioliasis. The aim, of this study, is to find the molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. isolated from humans and animals in Sulaimani city. The flukes were isolated from humans using endoscopic techniques and from slaughtered livestock at the new slaughterhouse of Sulaimani, 48 liver flukes were collected from different hosts; human (n = 3), cattle (n = 20), sheep (n = 20), and goats (n = 5) from October 2021 to April 2022. The uinversal primers ribosomal Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid (rDNA) were used, then the PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) assay and The PCR Product was digested with restriction enzymes DraII, also the DNA sequencing was used for the PCR product of the primer Cytochrome Oxidase subuint 1 (COX1). The results of the PCR-RFLP of the 28s rDNA show the genetic polymorphisms among the flukes and two patterns of RFLP were observed F. hepatica, and F. gigantica, also the sequence analysis of the partial gene of the COX1 showed the isolated flukes belonged to F. hepatica and F. gigantica with some genetic variation, and the result of the sequences was deposited in the Gene Bank under the following Accession numbers; F. gigantica (OP718780 and OP718781) and F. hepatica (OP718782, OP718783, and OP718784). The present study concludes that
F. hepatica and F. gigantica are both responsible for human and animal Fasciolasis in Kurdistan-Iraq, Therefore, RFLP techniques and DNA sequencing are a reliable, and differential method for species and genotyping identification of liver fluke.
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