Development Permeability prediction for Bai Hassan Cretaceous Carbonate Reservoir


  • Tariq kakarash Department of Law and Political Science , University of Human Development, Sulaymania, Iraq
  • Qays M. Sadeq Department of Petroleum Geoscience , Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia



Carbonate Reservoir, Core Data, Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient (VK), Hydraulic Flow Unit Method (RQI/FZI), Permeability, Porosity, Winland Method


Permeability and porosity are the most difficult parameters to estimate in the oil reservoir because they are varying significantly over the reservoir, especially in the carbonate formation. Porosity and permeability can only be sampled at the well location. However, porosity is easy to estimate directly from well log data, permeability is not. In addition, permeability measurements from core samples are very expensive. Carbonate reservoirs are very difficult to characterize because of their tendency to be tight and heterogeneous due to deposition and diagenetic processes. Therefore, many engineers and geologists try to establish methods to get the best characterization for the carbonate reservoir. In this study, available routine core data from three wells are used to develop permeability model based on hydraulic flow unit method (HFUM) (RQI/FZI) for cretaceous carbonate middle reservoirs of Bai Hassan oil field. The results show that the HFUM is work perfectly to characterize and predict permeability for uncored wells because R2 ≥ 0.9. It is indicating that permeability can be accurately predicted from porosity if rock type is known.


[1] M. Qays. Heterogeneity, Connectivity and Geological Modeling of Tertiary Carbonate Reservoir in Bai Hassan Oil Field. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Northern Iraq, 2016.

[2] D. Tiab and E. C. Donaldson. Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties. Gulf professional Publishing, USA, 2015.

[3] J. Kozeny. Über kapillare Leitung des Wassers im Boden:(Aufstieg, Versickerung und Anwendung auf die Bewässerung), Hölder- Pichler-Tempsky, Wien, Austria, 1927.

[4] P.C. Carman. Permeability of saturated sands, soils and clays. The Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 29, no. 02, pp. 262-273, 1939.

[5] A. Timur. An Investigation of Permeability, Porosity, and Residual Water Saturation Relationships, in Proceedings SPWLA 9th Annual Logging Symposium, Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts, 1968.

[6] J.O. Amaefule, M. Altunbay, D. Tiab, D.G. Kersey and D.K. Keelan. Enhanced reservoir description: Using core and log data to identify hydraulic (flow) units and predict permeability in uncored intervals/ wells, in Proceedings SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, 1993.

[7] Q.M. Sadeq. Facies Analysis and Reservoir Modelling kf1 oil Field North of Iraq, 2010.

[8] Q. Sadeq and S. Bhattacharya. Permeability estimation of fractured and vuggy carbonate reservoir by permeability multiplier method in bai hassan oil Field Northern Iraq. Journal of Petroleum and Environmental Engineering, vol. 6, no.4, pp. 1-7, 2015.

[9] G. Gunter, J. Finneran, D. Hartmann and J. Miller. Early determination of reservoir flow units using an integrated petrophysical method, in Proceedings SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1997.

[10] J. Bear. Dynamics of fluids in Porous Media: American. Else-vier, New York, 1972.

[11] Jr. W. Ebanks. Flow Unit Concept-Integrated Approach to Reservoir Description for Engineering Projects: AAPG (Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol.), Bull. (United States), vol. 71, no. CONF-870606, 1987.

[12] C. Hearn, Jr. W. Ebanks, R. Tye and V. Ranganathan. Geological factors influencing reservoir performance of the Hartzog Draw Field. Wyoming: Journal of Petroleum Technology, vol. 36, no. 08, pp. 1, 335-331, 344, 1984.

[13] M.B.P. Haghighi, M. Shabaninejad and K. Afsari. A Permeability Predictive model Based on Hydraulic Flow unit for one of Iranian Carbonate Tight gas Reservoir, in Proceedings SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2011.