# Application of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in Power Flow Studies

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21928/uhdjst.v1n1y2017.pp11-16## Keywords:

Artificial Bee Colony, Maximum Loadability, Power Flow, Swarm Artificial Technique## Abstract

Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the important artificial techniques in solving general-purpose optimization problems. This paper presents the application of ABC in computing the power flow solution of an electric power system. The objective function to be minimized is the active and reactive power mismatch at each bus. The proposed algorithm has been applied on typical power systems. The results obtained are compared with those obtained by the conventional method. The results obtained reveal that the ABC algorithm is very effective for solving the power flow problem in the maximum loadability region.

**Index Terms:** Artificial Bee Colony, Maximum Loadability, Power Flow, Swarm Artificial Technique

## References

[1] M. A. Laughton and M. W. H. Davies, “Numerical techniques in solution of power system load flow problems.”Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 111, No. 9, pp. 1575-1588, Sept. 1964.

[2] L. L. Freris and A. M. Sasson, “Investigation of the load-flow problem.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 115, No. 10, pp. 1459-1465, Oct. 1968.

[3] S. Moorthy, M. Al-Dabbagh and M. Vawser, “Improved phase-coordinate gauss-seidel load flow algorithm.”Electric Power System Research, vol. 34, pp. 91-95, 1995.

[4] W. F. Tinney and C. E. Hart, “Power flow solution by Newton’s method.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-86, pp. 1449-1460, Nov. 1967.

[5] B. Stott, “Effective starting process for Newton-Raphson load flows.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 118, no. 8. pp. 983-987, Aug. 1971.

[6] R. G. Wasley and M. A. Shlash, “Newton-Raphson algorithm for 3-phase load flow.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 121, No. 7, pp. 630-638, Jul. 1974.

[7] M. E. El-Hawary and O. K. Wellon, “The ALPHA-modified quasi-second order Newton-Raphson method for load flow solutions in rectangular form.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. PAS-101, pp. 854-866, 1982.

[8] A. J. Flueck and H. D. Chiang, “Solving the nonlinear power flow equations with an inexact Newton method using GMRES.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-13, No. 2. pp. 267-273, May. 1998.

[9] M. D. Schaffer and D. J. Tylavsky, “A non-diverging polar form Newton based power flow.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 870-877, 1998.

[10] V. M. da Costa, N. Martins and J. L. R. Pereira, “Developments in the Newton-Raphson power flow formulation based on current injections.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 1449-1456, Nov. 1999.

[11] Y.Xiao andY. H.Song,“Power flow studies of a large practical power network with embedded FACTS devices using improved optimal multiplier Newton-Raphson method.” European Transaction on Electrical Power, vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 247-256, Jul. Aug. 2001.

[12] M. Irving, “Pseudo-load flow as a starting process for Newton Raphson algorithm.” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 835-839, 2010.

[13] T. Kulworawanichpong, “Simplified Newton-Raphson power flow solution method.” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 551-558, 2010.

[14] S. M. R. Slochanal and K. R. Mohanram, “A novel approach to large scale system load flows Newton-Raphson method using hybrid bus.” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 41, pp. 219-223, 1997.

[15] B. Stott, “Decoupled Newton load flow.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-91, pp. 1955-1959, 1972.

[16] B. Stott and O.Alsac, “Fast decoupled load flow.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-93, No. 3. pp. 859-

869, May. Jun. 1974.

[17] K. Behnam-Guilani, “Fast decoupled load flow: The hybrid model,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-3, No. 2, pp. 734-742, May. 1988.

[18] A. V. Garcia and M. G. Zago, “Three-phase fast decoupled power flow for distribution networks.” IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 143, No. 2, pp. 188-192, Mar. 1997.

[19] S. C. Tripathy, G. D. Prasad, O. P. Malik and G. S. Hope, “Load flow solutions for ill-conditioned power systems by a Newton-like method,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, pp. 3648-3657, Oct. 1982.

[20] D. Rajicic and A. Bose, “A modification to the fast decoupled power flow for networks with high R/X ratios.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-3, No. 2, pp. 743-746, May. 1988.

[21] X. Yin, “Application of genetic algorithms to multiple load flow solution problem in electrical power systems.” Proceedings of the 32nd Conference on Decision and Control, Texas, pp. 3734-3738, 1993.

[22] W. L. Chan, A. T. P. So and L. L. Lai, “Initial applications of complex artificial neural networks to load-flow analysis.” IEE Proceedings Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 147, No. 6, pp. 361-366, Nov. 2000.

[23] P. Acharjee and S. K. Goswami, “Simple but reliable two-stage GA based load flow,” Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 36, pp. 47-62, 2008.

[24] D. Karaboga, “An idea based on honey bee swarm for numerical optimization,” Technical Report-TR06, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, 2005.

[25] B. Akay and D. Karaboga, “A modified artificial bee colony algorithm for real-parameter optimization” Information Science, vol. 1, pp. 120-142, Jun. 2010.

[26] S. J. Huang, X. Z. Liu, W. F. Su, and T. C. Ou, “Application of enhanced honey-bee mating optimization algorithm to fault section estimation in power systems.” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1944-1951, Jul. 2013.

[27] M. Afzalan and M. A. Taghikhani, “Placement and sizing DG using PSO and HBMO algorithms in radial distribution networks” International Journal of Intelligent System and Applications, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 43-49, Sep. 2012.

[28] N. T. Linh and D. X. Dong, “Optimal location and size of distributer generation in distribution system by artificial bees colony algorithm” International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 63-67, Jan. 2013.

[29] D. Karaboga and B. Basturk, “A powerful and efficient algorithm for numerical function optimization: Artificial bee colony(ABC) algorithm.” Journal of Global Optimization, vol. 39, pp. 459-471, 2007.

[30] M. S. Kiran and M. Gündüz, “The analysis of peculiar control parameters of artificial bee colony algorithm on the numerical optimization problems.” Journal of Computer and Communications, vol. 2, pp. 127-136, Mar. 2014.

[31] K. Al-Anbarri, A. H. Miri, and S. A. Hussain, “Load frequency control of multi-area hybrid power system by artificial intelligence techniques.” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 138, no. 7, Mar. 2016.

[32] A. J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation and Control, 2nd ed, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1996.

[2] L. L. Freris and A. M. Sasson, “Investigation of the load-flow problem.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 115, No. 10, pp. 1459-1465, Oct. 1968.

[3] S. Moorthy, M. Al-Dabbagh and M. Vawser, “Improved phase-coordinate gauss-seidel load flow algorithm.”Electric Power System Research, vol. 34, pp. 91-95, 1995.

[4] W. F. Tinney and C. E. Hart, “Power flow solution by Newton’s method.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-86, pp. 1449-1460, Nov. 1967.

[5] B. Stott, “Effective starting process for Newton-Raphson load flows.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 118, no. 8. pp. 983-987, Aug. 1971.

[6] R. G. Wasley and M. A. Shlash, “Newton-Raphson algorithm for 3-phase load flow.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. 121, No. 7, pp. 630-638, Jul. 1974.

[7] M. E. El-Hawary and O. K. Wellon, “The ALPHA-modified quasi-second order Newton-Raphson method for load flow solutions in rectangular form.” Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, vol. PAS-101, pp. 854-866, 1982.

[8] A. J. Flueck and H. D. Chiang, “Solving the nonlinear power flow equations with an inexact Newton method using GMRES.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-13, No. 2. pp. 267-273, May. 1998.

[9] M. D. Schaffer and D. J. Tylavsky, “A non-diverging polar form Newton based power flow.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 870-877, 1998.

[10] V. M. da Costa, N. Martins and J. L. R. Pereira, “Developments in the Newton-Raphson power flow formulation based on current injections.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 1449-1456, Nov. 1999.

[11] Y.Xiao andY. H.Song,“Power flow studies of a large practical power network with embedded FACTS devices using improved optimal multiplier Newton-Raphson method.” European Transaction on Electrical Power, vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 247-256, Jul. Aug. 2001.

[12] M. Irving, “Pseudo-load flow as a starting process for Newton Raphson algorithm.” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 835-839, 2010.

[13] T. Kulworawanichpong, “Simplified Newton-Raphson power flow solution method.” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 551-558, 2010.

[14] S. M. R. Slochanal and K. R. Mohanram, “A novel approach to large scale system load flows Newton-Raphson method using hybrid bus.” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 41, pp. 219-223, 1997.

[15] B. Stott, “Decoupled Newton load flow.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-91, pp. 1955-1959, 1972.

[16] B. Stott and O.Alsac, “Fast decoupled load flow.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-93, No. 3. pp. 859-

869, May. Jun. 1974.

[17] K. Behnam-Guilani, “Fast decoupled load flow: The hybrid model,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-3, No. 2, pp. 734-742, May. 1988.

[18] A. V. Garcia and M. G. Zago, “Three-phase fast decoupled power flow for distribution networks.” IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 143, No. 2, pp. 188-192, Mar. 1997.

[19] S. C. Tripathy, G. D. Prasad, O. P. Malik and G. S. Hope, “Load flow solutions for ill-conditioned power systems by a Newton-like method,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, pp. 3648-3657, Oct. 1982.

[20] D. Rajicic and A. Bose, “A modification to the fast decoupled power flow for networks with high R/X ratios.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. PWRS-3, No. 2, pp. 743-746, May. 1988.

[21] X. Yin, “Application of genetic algorithms to multiple load flow solution problem in electrical power systems.” Proceedings of the 32nd Conference on Decision and Control, Texas, pp. 3734-3738, 1993.

[22] W. L. Chan, A. T. P. So and L. L. Lai, “Initial applications of complex artificial neural networks to load-flow analysis.” IEE Proceedings Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 147, No. 6, pp. 361-366, Nov. 2000.

[23] P. Acharjee and S. K. Goswami, “Simple but reliable two-stage GA based load flow,” Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 36, pp. 47-62, 2008.

[24] D. Karaboga, “An idea based on honey bee swarm for numerical optimization,” Technical Report-TR06, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, 2005.

[25] B. Akay and D. Karaboga, “A modified artificial bee colony algorithm for real-parameter optimization” Information Science, vol. 1, pp. 120-142, Jun. 2010.

[26] S. J. Huang, X. Z. Liu, W. F. Su, and T. C. Ou, “Application of enhanced honey-bee mating optimization algorithm to fault section estimation in power systems.” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1944-1951, Jul. 2013.

[27] M. Afzalan and M. A. Taghikhani, “Placement and sizing DG using PSO and HBMO algorithms in radial distribution networks” International Journal of Intelligent System and Applications, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 43-49, Sep. 2012.

[28] N. T. Linh and D. X. Dong, “Optimal location and size of distributer generation in distribution system by artificial bees colony algorithm” International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 63-67, Jan. 2013.

[29] D. Karaboga and B. Basturk, “A powerful and efficient algorithm for numerical function optimization: Artificial bee colony(ABC) algorithm.” Journal of Global Optimization, vol. 39, pp. 459-471, 2007.

[30] M. S. Kiran and M. Gündüz, “The analysis of peculiar control parameters of artificial bee colony algorithm on the numerical optimization problems.” Journal of Computer and Communications, vol. 2, pp. 127-136, Mar. 2014.

[31] K. Al-Anbarri, A. H. Miri, and S. A. Hussain, “Load frequency control of multi-area hybrid power system by artificial intelligence techniques.” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 138, no. 7, Mar. 2016.

[32] A. J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation and Control, 2nd ed, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1996.

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2017-04-12

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*UHD Journal of Science and Technology*,

*1*(1), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.21928/uhdjst.v1n1y2017.pp11-16

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