Temporal Variation of Drinking Water Quality Parameters for Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords:Seasonal, Variation, Water, Quality, Sulaimani
Water is vital for all forms of life on earth. Assessing the quality of water especially drinking water is one of the important processes worldwide which affect public health. In this study, the quality of drinking water in Sulaimani City is monitored for a study period of 1 year. A total number of 78 water samples were collected and analyzed for 17 physical and chemical properties of water supply system to the city. Samples of water are collected from the three main sources of drinking water for Sulaimani City (Sarchnar, Dukan line-1, and Dukan line-2) from February to August 2019. The results of physical and chemical parameters of collected water samples were compared with the World Health Organization and Iraqi standards for drinking water quality. The results of this study showed that mostly all parameters were within the standards except the turbidity parameter which was exceeded the allowable standards in some cases. This research concluded that, in general, the quality of drinking water at the three main sources of Sulaimani City is suitable and acceptable for drinking.
 A. H. M. Alobaidy, H. S. Abid and B. K. Maulood. “Application of water quality index for assessment of Dokan lake ecosystem, Kurdistan region, Iraq”. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol. 2, no. 9, p. 792, 2010.
 A. C. AL-Shammary, M. F. AL-Ali and K. H. Yonuis. “Assessment of Al-Hammar marsh water by uses Canadian water quality index (WQI)”. Mesopotamia Environmental Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 26-34, 2015.
 E. D. Ongley. Water quality management: Design, financing and sustainability considerations-II. In: Invited Presentation at the World Bank’s Water Week Conference: Towards a Strategy for Managing Water Quality Management. World Bank, United States, 2000.
 A. Sargaonkar and V. Deshpande. “Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 43-67, 2003.
 K. Mosimanegape. Integration of Physicochemical Assessment of Water Quality with Remote Sensing Techniques for the Dikgathong Damin Botswana. Master’s Dissertation, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 2016.
 H. J. Vaux. “Water quality (book review)”. Environment, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 39, 2001.
 A. Parparov, K. D. Hambright, L. Hakanson and A. Ostapenia. “Water quality quantification: Basics and implementation”. Hydrobiologia, vol. 560, no. 1, pp. 227-237, 2006.
 A. H. M. Alobaidy, B. K. Maulood and A. J. Kadhem. “Evaluating raw and treated water quality of Tigris River within Baghdad by index analysis”. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 629, 2010.
 H. C. Kataria, M. Gupta, M. Kumar, S. Kushwaha, S. Kashyap, S. Trivedi and N. K. Bandewar. “Study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water of Bhopal city with reference to health impacts”. Current World Environment, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 95-99, 2011.
 H. Q. Khan. Water quality index for municipal water supply of Attock city, Punjab, Pakistan. In: Survival and Sustainability. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
 M. Alsawalha. “Assessing drinking water quality in Jubail industrial city, Saudi Arabia”. American Journal of Water Resources, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 142-145, 2017.
 N. Othman, T. Kane, and K. Hawrami. Environmental health assessment in Sulaymaniyah city and Vicinity. Tech Report, United States, 2017.
 H. M. Issa and R. A. Alrwai. “Long-term drinking water quality assessment using index and multivariate statistical analysis for three water treatment plants of Erbil City, Iraq”. UKH Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 39-48, 2018.
 F. Salih, N. Othman, F. Muhidin and A. Kasem. “Assessment of the quality of water in Sulaimaniyah city, Kurdistan region: Iraq”. Current World Environment, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 781-791, 2015.
 D. A. M. Barznji and D.G.A. Ganjo. “Assessment of the chemical water quality in Halabja-Sulaimani, Kurdistan region of Iraq”. Asian Journal of Water Environmental and Pollution, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 19-28, 2014.
 Y. A. Hamaamin. “Developing of rainfall intensity-durationfrequency model for Sulaimani city”. Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani, vol. 19, no. 3-4, p10634, 2017.
 S. M. Razuki and M. A. Al-Rawi. Study of some physiochemical and microbial properties of local and imported bottled water in Baghdad city. Iraq Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1-7, 2010.
 World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: First Addendum. 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2017.
 C. E. Boyd. Water Quality: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2015.
 Environmental Protection Agency. Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretation and Standards. Environmental Protection Agency, United States, 2001.
 M. V. Ahipathy and E. T. Puttaiah. “Ecological characteristics of Vrishabawathi River in Bangalore (India)”. Environmental Geology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1217-1222, 2006.
 H. Boyacioglu and H. Boyacioglu. “Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 131, no. 1-3, pp. 371-376, 2007.
 World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Incorporating First and Second Addenda. 3rd ed., Vol. 1, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008.
 L. Apha, A. Clesceri and A. Greenberg. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1998.
 ICSD, WCL. Iraqi Criteria and Standards for Drinking Water, Chemical Limits. ICS: 13.060.20, IQS: 417, 2nd Update 2009 for Chemical and Physical Limits. ICSD, WCL, United States, 2009.