Possible Motivations for Learning English amongst Kurdish EFL Undergraduate Learners at the University Level


  • Farhad Majeed Hama English Department, School of Basic Education, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan region, Iraq
  • Diaman Abdulrahman Ismael English Department, School of Basic Education, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan region, Iraq
  • Aram Kamil Noori Institute of Training and Educational Development in Sulaimani, English Dept, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan region, Iraq




Applied Linguistics, Instrumental Motivation, Integrative Motivation


It can be argued that integrative and instrumental kinds of motivation are two prominent factors in learning new languages. Each kind of motivation works differently in various contexts. Besides, several studies have been investigated in EFL (English as a foreign language), and ESL (English as a second language) settings. There are also external factors that have impacts on different types of motivation and learners. There are also obvious reasons for learning English as a foreign language. This study focused on integrative and instrumental kinds of motivation amongst Kurdish EFL undergraduate learners at the University of Sulaimani in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. The finding showed that getting a job is a major motivator for learning English amongst learners. However, cultural and communication goals were two other important goals that encouraged learners to learn English. In general, the results revealed that instrumental motivation was more significant than integrative motivation. Additionally, some elements affected and increased learner's motivation such as parental aids, teachers, social, personality, and university environment.


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How to Cite

Hama, F. M., Ismael, D. A., & Noori, A. K. (2021). Possible Motivations for Learning English amongst Kurdish EFL Undergraduate Learners at the University Level. Journal of University of Human Development, 7(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.21928/juhd.v7n1y2021.pp35-42