Effect of Cationic Surfactants on Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized through Sol-gel Technique


  • Hwda Ghafur Rauf Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
  • Hamid Rashidi Nodeh Department of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran
  • Madzlan Aziz Department of Science, University Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Sattar Ibrahim Kareem Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region of Iraq




Benzalkonium Chloride, Cationic Surfactants, Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide, Nanostructures, Sol-gel Method, Zinc Oxide


Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important metal oxide which participates in lots of applications, including gas sensors, catalysis, and optoelectronic devices. For nanostructured materials, agglomeration is problematic in the chemical production processes. In surfactant-free chemical reactions, aggregation occurs immediately as particles are generated. Therefore, the synthesis of controllable size nanoparticles is of great fundamental and technological interest. In the present study, the effect of cationic surfactants such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and benzalkonium chloride concentrations, on the optical properties, size, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were studied. The characterizing tools were X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-near-infrared) spectrophotometer. X-ray diffractogram confirmed the hexagonal (wurtzite structure) of ZnO. FTIR analyzed the presence of functional groups. The shape and size of the ZnO nanostructures were revealed by SEM and TEM. The band gap energy of the prepared ZnO samples was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.


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