Effect of Benzalkonium Chloride on Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized through Sol-Gel Technique


  • Hwda Ghafur Rauf Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences , University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
  • Madzlan Aziz Department of Chemistry, University Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Sattar Ibrahim Kareem Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq




Benzalkonium Chloride, Cationic Surfactants, Sol–Gel Method, Zinc Oxide, Nanostructures


In the present study, to synthesize controllable sized metal oxide particles, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) as cationic surfactant was added to zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures synthesis at room temperature using sol–gel method. The effect of cationic surfactant BAK concentrations, on the optical properties, size, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized through sol–gel method was studied. The characterization of ZnO nanostructures was occurred using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible near infrared (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ZnO nanostructures shape and size were revealed by SEM and TEM. The hexagonal (wurtzite structure) of ZnO was confirmed by an X-ray diffractogram. The bandgap energy of the prepared ZnO samples was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR analyzed the presence of functional groups.


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