Seroprevalence and Molecular Detection of Influenza A Virus (H1N1) in Sulaimani Governorate-Iraq


  • Kaziwa Ahmad Kaka alla Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • Salih Ahmed Hama Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Human Development, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq



Influenza A (H1N1) virus is now rapidly scattering across the world. Early detection is one of the most effective measures to stop the further spread of the virus. The current study was aimed to detect influenza A (H1N1) serologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. From September 2020 to June 2021, three hundred nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected from Hiwa and Shahid Tahir Hospitals in Sulaimani city. Obtained results revealed that 23.3% of the tested patients were seropositive anti-IgG for Influenza A, while 13.3% showed anti-IgM seropositive results although 10% of the tested cases were with both anti-IgG and anti-IgM seropositive results. Gender, residency, and flu symptoms showed no significant relations with seropositive results (p<0.05) whereas valuable relations were found between seropositive observations and smoking, the previous history of chronic diseases as well as employment status (p<0.05). It was concluded that hematologic investigations (CBC) were not dependable if H1N1 diagnosis and detection. Only 1% of the tested samples showed positive results for influenza A (H1N1) RNA using reverse transcription-PCR.


N. Takeshi. “Native morphology of influenza virions”. Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 2, p. 269, 2012.

S. V. Bourmakina and A. García-Sastre. “Reverse genetics studies on the filamentous morphology of influenza a virus”. Journal of General Virology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 517-527, 2003.

B. Szewczyk, K. Bieńkowska-Szewczyk and E. Król. “Introduction to molecular biology of influenza a viruses”. Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 397-401, 2014.

D. B. Smith, E. R. Gaunt, P. Digard, K. Templeton and P. Simmonds. Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples”. Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 74, pp. 50- 53, 2016.

C. Brockwell‐Staats, R. G. Webster and R. J. Webby. “Diversity of influenza viruses in swine and the emergence of a novel human pandemic influenza A (H1N1)”. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 207-213, 2009.

K. Wu, J. Liu, R. Saha, D. Su, V. D. Krishna, M. C. J. Cheeran and J. P. Wang. “Magnetic particle spectroscopy for detection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1”. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 13686-13697, 2020.

Z. Yu, K. Cheng, H. He and J. Wu. “A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, Eastern China”. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 450-454, 2020.

J. A. Pulit-Penaloza, C. Pappas, J. A. Belser, X. Sun, N. Brock, H. Zeng, T. M. Tumpey and T. R. Maines. “Comparative in vitro and in vivo analysis of H1N1 and H1N2 variant influenza viruses isolated from humans between 2011 and 2016”. Journal of Virology, vol. 92, no. 22, p. e01444-18, 2018

P. J. Campbell, S. Danzy, C. S. Kyriakis, M. J. Deymier, A. C. Lowen and J. Steel. “The M segment of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus confers increased neuraminidase activity, filamentous morphology, and efficient contact transmissibility to A/Puerto Rico/8/1934-based reassortant viruses”. Journal of Virology, vol. 88, no. 7, p. 3802, 2014.

C. W. Potter. “A history of influenza”. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 572-579, 2001.

S. Davis. “The different types of flu explained-seasonal influenza, swine flu, and avian flu. SA Pharmacists Assistant, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 10-11, 2019

P. J. Gavin and R. B. Jr. Thomson. “Review of rapid diagnostic tests for influenza”. Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 151-172, 2004.

M. Petric, L. Comanor and C. A. Petti. “Role of the laboratory in the diagnosis of influenza during seasonal epidemics and potential pandemics”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 194, no. Suppl 2, pp. S98-S110, 2006.

S. Dellière, M. Salmona, M. Minier, A. Gabassi, A. Alanio, J. Le Goff, C. Delaugerre, M. L. Chaix and Saint-Louis CORE (COvid REsearch) Group. “Evaluation of the COVID-19 IgG/ IgM rapid test from orient gene biotech”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 8, p. e01233-20, 2020.

M. Von Lilienfeld-Toal, A. Berger, M. Christopeit, M. Hentrich, C. P. Heussel, J. Kalkreuth, M. Klein, M. Kochanek, O. Penack, E. Hauf, C. Rieger, G. Silling, M. Vehreschild, T. Weber, H. H. Wolf, N. Lehners, E. Schalk and K. Mayer. “Community-acquired respiratory virus infections in cancer patients guideline on diagnosis and management by the infectious diseases working party of the German society for haematology and medical oncology”. European Journal of Cancer, vol. 67, pp. 200-212, 2016.

R. El Ramahi and A. Freifeld. “Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of influenza infection in oncology patients”. Journal of Oncology Practice, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 177-184, 2019.

V. Rahmanian, M. Shakeri, H. Shakeri, A. S. Jahromi, A. Bahonar and A. Madani. “Epidemiology of influenza in patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in South of Iran (2015-2016)”. Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 27-37, 2019.

L. P. Hariri, C. M. North, A. R. Shih, R. A. Israel, J. H. Maley, J. A. Villalba, V. Vinarsky, J. Rubin, D. A. Okin, A. Sclafani, J. W. Alladina, J. W. Griffith, M. A. Gillette, Y. Raz, C. J. Richards, A. K. Wong, A. Ly, Y. P. Hung, R. R. Chivukula, C. R. Petri, T. F. Calhoun, L. N. Brenner, K. A. Hibbert, B. D. Medoff, C. C. Hardin, J. R. Stone and M. Mino-Kenudson. “Lung histopathology in coronavirus disease 2019 as compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome and H1N1 influenza”. Chest, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 73-84, 2020.

E. Kenah, D. L. Chao, L. Matrajt, M. E. Halloran and I. M. Jr. Longini. “The global transmission and control of influenza”. PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 5, p. e19515, 2011.

V. M. Konala, S. Adapa, V. Gayam, S. Naramala, S. R. Daggubati, C. B. Kammari and A. Chenna. “Co-infection with influenza A and COVID-19”. European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 001656, 2020.

S. Briand, A. Mounts and M. Chamberland. “Challenges of global surveillance during an influenza pandemic”. Public Health, Vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 247-256, 2011.

B. N. Archer, C. Cohen, D. Naidoo, J. Thomas, C. Makunga, L. Blumberg, M. Venter, G. Timothy, A. Puren, J. McAnerney, A. Cengimbo and B. Schoub. “Interim report on pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections in South Africa, April to October 2009: Epidemiology and factors associated with fatal cases”. Eurosurveillance, vol. 14, no. 42, pp. 19369, 2009.

D. Miyazawa. “Why obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and ethnicities are common risk factors for COVID‐19 and H1N1 influenza infections”. Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 127-128, 2021.

Z. A. Memish, A. M. Assiri, R. Hussain, I. Alomar and G. Stephens. “Detection of respiratory viruses among pilgrims in Saudi Arabia during the time of a declared influenza A (H1N1) pandemic”. Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-21, 2012.

Z. Shimoni, J. Glick and P. Froom. “Clinical utility of the full blood count in identifying patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1)”. The Journal of Infection, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 545-547, 2013.

O. Coșkun, I. Y. Avci, K. Sener, H. Yaman, R. Ogur, H. Bodur and C. P. Eyigün. “Relative lymphopenia and monocytosis may be considered as a surrogate marker of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)”. Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 388-389, 2010.

Y. Egawa, S. Ohfuji, W. Fukushima, Y. Yamazaki, T. Morioka, M. Emoto, K. Maeda, M. Inaba and Y. Hirota. “Immunogenicity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine in patients with diabetes mellitus: With special reference to age, body mass index, and HbA1c”. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1187-1194, 2014.



How to Cite

Kaka alla, K. A., & Hama, S. A. (2022). Seroprevalence and Molecular Detection of Influenza A Virus (H1N1) in Sulaimani Governorate-Iraq. UHD Journal of Science and Technology, 6(1), 1–6.