Seroprevalence and Molecular Detection of Influenza A Virus (H1N1) in Sulaimani Governorate-Iraq


  • Kaziwa Ahmad Kaka alla Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • Salih Ahmed Hama Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Human Development, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq



Influenza A (H1N1) virus is now rapidly scattering across the world. Early detection is one of the most effective measures to stop the further spread of the virus. The current study was aimed to detect influenza A (H1N1) serologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. From September 2020 to June 2021, three hundred nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected from Hiwa and Shahid Tahir Hospitals in Sulaimani city. Obtained results revealed that 23.3% of the tested patients were seropositive anti-IgG for Influenza A, while 13.3% showed anti-IgM seropositive results although 10% of the tested cases were with both anti-IgG and anti-IgM seropositive results. Gender, residency, and flu symptoms showed no significant relations with seropositive results (p<0.05) whereas valuable relations were found between seropositive observations and smoking, the previous history of chronic diseases as well as employment status (p<0.05). It was concluded that hematologic investigations (CBC) were not dependable if H1N1 diagnosis and detection. Only 1% of the tested samples showed positive results for influenza A (H1N1) RNA using reverse transcription-PCR.


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